What's on this page?
The post-mortem is an excellent skill for any
beekeeper to develop, treatment-free or not.
Knowing what killed your hive is the best way to
understand how to prevent it or what to do about it in the future.
In my case, Iím not doing it to figure out how to
treat in the future, Iím doing it to understand
how a portion of the bees is doing overall.
If I can put together the signs the hive is giving
before it dies, then I can know which hives not to
breed from or which ones which can be redeemed by
requeening before they fail. Let us begin.
So letís go through an imaginary hive and see what
we can see. There are a lot of things to
look for and to see. We can start by looking
at the exterior.
What does the entrance look
like? Is there bee poop around? Is
there a lot of bee poop around?
If there is some poop, it may be nothing or it may be a sign of
dysentery. If there is a lot of poop, smeared around, it is
probably a sign of dysentery or related disease. A robbed out hive
will often have pieces of wax cappings littering the entrance and some
small smears of propolis.
dead bees? Are they clogging the
A dead hive will often have bees littering the bottom as there is no one to haul them out.
Is there water dripping out of
anywhere? Are/were there any icicles hanging
from the upper entrance if there is one?
If so, check into condensation as a possible problem.
there wads of mooshed up bees lying around the
base of the stand? Is the grass and dirt
torn up? Are there scratches at the entrance?
If any of these are present, look into skunks. The hive will also be largely if not completely depopulated.
Is the lid or other parts leaky or rotten?
Perhaps equipment failure is to blame.
Now letís look inside.
As you take off the
lid, is there a smell?
Check for rotten bees, wetness, fermented honey. Fermented honey
can be a sign of honey that was not cured and capped to begin with,
especially important if you fed syrup.
What do you see on
the top bars? Is there condensation?
Is there mold?
Mold is a sign of too much water in a hive. Streaks on the comb are a big sign of dysentery.
Is there bee poop?
Dysentery or related condition. Also possible that the bees never got an opportunity for cleansing flights.
Is there honey left? Where is
the honey? Are the bees surrounded by
If there is no honey left and everything else checks out, it's pretty
obviously starvation. Dead cluster on brood 6" from honey can be
starvation because of the brooding.
what condition is the comb? What is reusable and what is not?
If you can reuse this equipment, do. Do not reuse comb with signs of American Foulbrood.
Has the hive
been robbed out?
Robbing can identify the time period of the death. Remember what
days bees were flying throughout the winter to pin it down.
Is there brood?
Could be starvtion due to the bees not being able to move off the broodnest.
Looking through the frames, where is the
cluster? Does it look
like the brood was abandoned? Is there more
than one cluster? How big is the
Small and divided clusters can be due to disease or mites.
Sometimes bees not well adapted to their climate can starve within
inches of honey even without covering brood. They don't have the
ability to move in extreme temperatures.
Is the queen present in the
Hard to find, not a huge indicator if you can't find her. If you can find her then you can eliminate queen loss.
Are there queen cells?
Perhaps a failed late season supersedure or queen loss.
Now the bottom board, there is always information
on the bottom board.
How many bees are on
the bottom board? Is it generally clean or
is it totally covered in funk? Is there a puddle?
Indicators of the rate of bee death and timing. Rotted goop is a
sign of water. A puddle is a sign of the hive being tilted to the
back rather than forward which can lead to significant queen loss.
mites? How many?
There will probably be a few mites if you look hard enough. Massive amounts of mites are pretty obvious.
Are there small hive
beetles? How many?
Small hive beetles will overwinter in the cluster. I have found
dead hives with more than usual, but it's the larvae that cause the
damage in hives.
What does the entrance look like?
There could be signs of dysentery. Signs of robbing include a
general muddy appearance which is a mixture of wax, propolis, and honey
as the robbers have made a mess and tracked some of it out the front
These are questions you can ask to help you
discover what went wrong. One of the first
things you should figure out is if it was your
fault. If the hive starved out and they had
enough stores going into winter, than it is an
issue of bees not being frugal with their
stores. If the starved out after you
harvested honey when you shouldnít have, then you
bear responsibility. But donít get too down
on yourself, learn from your mistakes and move
on. For what good is a mistake if nothing is
learned from it?
Further interpreting the signs can be
difficult. Iíve seen virtually everything
blamed on mites. Iím not saying that mites
arenít playing a part, but not everything is the
mitesí fault. I have had bees brought from
warmer climates have trouble wintering. I
have had bees in the spring being severely
predated by skunks. Look for the signs and
learn from them. If you are going to buy
bees, buy them from north of you, and if you have
skunks, use upper entrances or an electric fence.
Case Study: 1
Here is a hive that died in the fall of 2011, some
time around Thanksgiving. Here was the lower
As you can see, the queen was found in the upper
cluster. The hive was composed of three deep
boxes and included an upper entrance and a closed
off lower entrance. The white stuff is
granulated sugar which fell down from the top
where it was being fed in the fall. There
was open honey stores all around. The hive
had several frames of pollen. There were
half a dozen small hive beetles on the bottom
board, and about two dozen mites. This hive
was a swarm that was caught the previous year and
was productive and frugal at that time. It
had been superseded at least once in 2011 and
there were leftover queen cells in the hive.
There are more details in a post dedicated to this
hive on the
And here was the
Case Study: 2
This is a hive that died sometime in January or so at my north yard in Greenland Arkansas.
Opening this hive revealed a small cluster but more than enough
honey. The cluster was over several frames despite its small
size. As you can tell, the above frame is plastic while the lower
one is foundationless and drone size comb. This hive probably did
some sort of freezing to death when we had temperatures down to
-5F. This was a swarm caught in the summer of 2012 in NE
Fayetteville. I judged it at the time to be from a kept hive
rather than truly feral.
Case Study: 3
This is another hive from my Greenland yard, died about the same time as 2.
Here is an example though not a great example of a divided
cluster. Plenty of honey still in the hive. Notice how the
cluster is above some of the honey, clusters do not generally move back
over empty comb. This is especially important in trough or topbar
hives where the cluster may end up in one end starving while the other
end is full of honey. There is also a small patch of capped brood
here. Final prognosis is probably that of a too-small cluster
getting a cold snap.
Case Study: 4
Another hive, same location and date.
Look at that excellent small cell comb on the right, definitely going to
reuse that. I'll reuse the other one as well, you can see the
light brown of the comb telling you that it is young, probably two
years. Decent sized cluster, though you'd think with that
proximity to honey they wouldn't have starved, but you can also see the
capped brood on the upper right.
Case Study: 5
Another in the same location and time.
This one turned out to be the only one in this location that well and
truly starved. There was virtually no honey in this hive.
The cluster is small and the mold shows it was probably dead before the
other ones died and has been dead since late fall or early winter.
Also, no sign of robbing (jaggedly torn honey cappings, sticky wax and
propolis tracked out the entrance and entrance littered with
cappings.) I'd probably say, any hive worth being called a
survivor should survive long enough to rob the deadouts and still
survive the winter. The comb on the left is getting a little
darker, starting to build some drone, but still only 3-4 years old.
Case Study: 6
Fifth of six hives from Greenland yard. The sixth was the only one
alive after the date these pictures were taken, February 17, 2014.
Though you can't see it on this frame, this hive had plenty of honey,
including a half full medium which sat on top of this box. Not
much to see here, year-old comb, sitting on honey and pollen, doesn't
look like brood was an issue, this was the mother of one batch of queens
from last year, a good performer, left behind plenty of honey and good
comb. These temperatures (-5) were the lowest I've seen since I've
lived here which is nearly 7 years. This is not the first time
there has been a substantial dieoff at a serious low temperature
event. Christmas of 2009 yielded 0F and a loss of 5 hives.
Here's a picture of the bottom board. You can see a lot of dead
bees, a little mold, even some drips of water or diluted honey. A
quick check did not yield any mites, though maybe you can spot
some. This is a good color for a bottom board, most everything is
light colored. You don't want black or dark with lots of moisture
Case Study: 7
Coming (hopefully not soon).